Assignment of communication

4. Discuss mass media as industry with special reference to its characteristics and economics.

 The terminology of mass media is composed of two words mass and media .In fact it is shorter form of mass communication media. There is increasing trend of just refer media to denote the mass communication media. In the broadest sense to the receiver. Not all media are applicable for mass communication. Mass communication are those communication vehicles, such as newspaper, radio, TV, flim, online etc. The mass media amplify message to reach large audience.

As we know that mass media play important role on in industrial sector. Mass media is a deceptively simple term encompassing a countless array of institutions and individuals who differ in purpose,scope, method and cultural context. Mass media include all forms of informations communicated to large groups of people from a handmade sign to an international news network. Sometime, the term is used to mean various artificial and mechanical means such as book, newspapers, magazines, radio, televisions, flim and the internet emphasizing the single components of mass media.

Often the term refers to the media industry, also called the content industry. here, the emphasis is on the organizational commercial aspect. As Dominick says our definition of a mass medium will include also the institution that use these machines to transmit message. Even when we take the organization may a publication house publishing a local weekly or a multinational company holding hundreds of outlets. The mass media plays a significant role in modern society. They bring about the general diffusion of knowledge of life in the world today. Though the mass media we learn almost everything we know about the world beyond about our immediate envious. For example what we know here in Nepal about the assassination of Benezir Bhutto, Al Qaidea, Osama Bin Laden and so on is all through the mass media.

We live in immediate world, and there is no any alternative to mass communication in modern society .Mediated communication is critically important to us all. Indeed it was a part of civilized part of life long before modern media were developed. The special references of charactersistics and economic are as follows:

As we already know about the mass media is quite broader umbrella term inclusive forms of media. However for the sake of easy understanding we can summarize some the different types of mass media.

1. Main function is production and distribution of symbolic content.

2. Adress towards large audiences.

3. Presences of professional communicators.

4. Presence of multiple gatekeepers.

5. Consists of complex formal organization.

6. Participation as sender or receiver is voluntary

7. Various targeted groups.

8. Content open to all.

9. Content shaped according to choice of various targeted groups.

Economics of mass media:

1 Media are hybrid in respect of markets, products and technology

2. Media have high fixed costs

3. Media business involves creativity and uncertainty

4. products can be multiply used.

5. media tend naturally to concentration

6. Media business is difficult to enter

7. Media are not just any other business because of public interest aspect.

5. Discuss mass media as a business as well as social service and also discuss various function of mass media.

Mass media have to balance between social service and business. Often these two are conflicting. Howeever media should balance both the service and the business. Thus it became a hybrid concept. Some scholars opine that media should give first priority to social service. IT should be the voiceless in the society. They argue that very birth of media was to serve he people and the concept of business was developed birth of media was to serve to the people media would be irrelevant, they opine. On the other hand media must to business to survive must do business tro survive in the market place like any other business in media business certain human resources are involved capital is needed its products have certain market its product is brought and sold in the market and it is the formal organization. Those characters approve that media is a business. Doing business is directly related to its very existence. But it is not like any other business. Media professionals must maintain a balance here. For instance business should be done while service orientation is a must for its relevance. Then the middle path, obviously is to take media profession as the hybrid of service and business which demands balancing service and business.

    The various function of mass media are as follows:

1. survelillance

2. interpretation

3. linkage

4. transmission of values

5. entertainnment.

  1. survelillance:

It refers to what we popularly call the news and information role of the media. The surveillance function can be divided in main two types. Warning or beware survellience occurs when the media inform us about threats from hurricanes, erupting, volcanoes, depressed economic condition, increasing inflation or military attack. These warning is about immediate threats televisions stations interrupts programming to broadcasts. Instrumental surveillance has to do with the transmission of information that is useful and helpful in everyday about what flims are playing at the local theaters’, stock market prices, news product, fashions and so on are the examples of survelliance.           

  1. Interpretation:

The mass media do not supply just facts and data. They also provide information on the unlimited meaning and significance of those events. One forms of interpretation is so ovious that may people overlook it. Not everything that happens in the world on any given day can be included in the newspaper or in the world in the any given day can be included in the newspaper or in the TV or radio newscast.

  1. Linkage;

The mass media are able to join together different elements of society that are not directly connected. For example, mass advertising attempts to link the needs of buyers with the products of sellers. the needs of those suffering from diseases are another examples odf this linkage function.The needs of those suffering from the disease are matched with the desires of other who wish to see the problems eliminated.Another type of linkage occurs when geographically separated the media links groups that share thew common intrest.Publicity about thew sickness known as Gulf War Syndrome linked together those who claimed to be suffering from the diseases,and they formed a coalition that eventually prompted government hearing on the issue.

  1. Transmission of values:

The transmission of values is a subtle but nonetheless important function of the mass media. It also been called the socialization function The mass media present portrayls of our society and by watching listening and reading. we learn how people are supposed to act and what values are important to illustrate.Lets considers the images of an important but familiar concept as seen in the media  motherhood.The next time you watch television or thumb through a magazine pay close attention to way moyhers and children are presented.mass media memories are usally clean,loving,preety and cheerful.

  1. Entertainment:

Motion picture and sound recording are devoted primarily to entertainment.Even though most of the newspaper focuses on yhe events of the day,comics,puzzles,horoscopes,games,advice,gossip,humorand general entertainment features usually account for around 12 percent of the content. If we considered sports news as entertainment that would add another 14 percent to this figure. television is a primarily devoted to entertainment ,with about three quarters of a typical broadcast day falling into the category.

7.Present on overview of media support system.

ZMedia support system of the development of mass media.Various system have been developed in our society .They are called mass media support system because their very existence is largely dependent on the mass media.These systems are parts and parcels of mass media.such system are mentioned  below.


The advertising campaing is a series of advertisement message that share single idea and theme which make up and intregreate marketing communication.Advertising campaigns appear in different  media across a specific time frame.In cases where different kinds of products and services are offered by the advertising organization a separate programme by developed for each.

2.Public relation:

In general public relation is defined as relations with the general public as through publicity specifically those functions of a corporation organization etc.concerned with attempting to create favourable public opinion itself just about  every type of organization today. Uses public relation.Public relation involves deliberate ,plannrd and sustained effort to established a maintain mutul understanding between an organization and its public.Clearly mass media are the means of public relation .Media’s role in promoting public relations has been universally accepted. agencies;

By agency we mean organization supplying news but not publishing newspaper or not broadcasting radio and agencies are called wire services also.By the news agencies or wire services  we mean organization that distrubites news stories and pictures to its member for publication in newspaper or magazines,or in broadcast news productions.They are also known as press agencies or press associations or news services.with services are essential information support system for many mass media.These organizations are there for the collection ,transmission and distribution of news to newspaper periodicals,television,radio,and other journalistic and mass communication media.


syndicates means sale of television series or a radio shows for a multiple broadcasres,or of a news paper column or comic for synchronized publication.The syndicates mostly provide entertaintement and opinion material for newspaper .Unlike wireservice.which distributes their wares to both print and broadcast media,the syndicates aim generally at the print media.Syndicates are privately held companies. industry:

Music industry is one of the important support system of mass media.In fact mass media and music industry are intertwined in case of radio.TV and features flims .Both sides are being support of each other integreation of music industry and mass media can be seen Nepal too.On the othe hand there would no development in music industry without mass media.


Show business or show biz is another consequential development with the mass media.It haa become another support system for mass media industry.Many celebreates and their show business are there due to mass media.We can say that the development of entertainment industry wouldn’t be possible in the absences of media.Media are also using show business to attract the audiences.

7.Distrubition system:

Distribution system is directly related to print media with the development of print media a large network of distribution channels have been developed.Many people are getting job in distribution system and they are helping mass media industry reaching the audiences.

8.Research agencies:

                        The media have to keep in touch with their audiences and at least have data on their audiences to sell themselves to advertisers. For this purpose they seek help of measuring services. Measuring services such as research agencies through ratings,market research,and polls help mass media in this regard.

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WIFE:-(Whispering in her husband’s ear)”Dear may I have Rs 3000/- for a sari?”

HUSBAND:-“I cant hear so well in this ear dear,please come around to thev other ear”

WIFE:-“Honey ,may I have RS6000/-to buy a sari?

HUSBAND:-“Come around to the RS3000/-side again”


KALEY:-Even when my pocket is empty,I have got something in it.

KALI:-What is it.

KALEY:-A hole!!!

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Girl trafficking

The burning issue of today’s society are: robbery,rape,murder,drug addiction, girl trafficking     Among them,girl trafficking is most common problem.Girls trafficking means to sell girls in order to earn money.Often she is kept locked and has to serve many clients every day.Life is very hard and complex for them.Girl trafficking occurs in rural areas especially in districts like Sindupalanchok,makwanpur,Dhading,Nuwakot e.t.c some reason behind girl trafficking are:-

1.Due to illiteracy and lack of adequate health knowledge.

2.To quench thrist of monetary problem of their families

3.Being person of low caste and having no other job opportunities.

4.Due to desirebof getting better job oppurtinities in comparison to their present life status.

5.Due to false influence of their co-villages and even their own relatives.

We know  that girl trafficking is a serious social problem but how to prevent it?

●As Girl trafficking is illegal,NGOs,social institution like Maiti Neal and other must join hands together to ask the government to enforce law enforce law strongly against it.

●Information need to reach villages,readers,families,and children so that they can understand the dangers.


●especially the young girls and females must be notified the danger of girl trsfficking and its harm.

Girl trafficking is such a social problem that once envolved in it them it is very hard to earn reputation and mostly it leads to death because of diseases ,sucide it is better that youngster start a revolution program against girl trafficking.

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Why does miscommunication occurs?discuss with special reference to essentials of communications.Also give examples

miscommunication occurs in various reason.not all communication may be successful.In the case it is termed as miscommunication.We have had many such experiences that we simply could not communicateOur intened meaning to the receiver.Thus we come to the realization that effective communication is more than simply transmitting to target audience.Though we donot want to be miscommunicated.It is nearly impossible to communicate as desired by the communicator.There are various reason for miscommunication.For example.barries or noise tend to distort communications.Distortion is an outcome of an communication in which the source intended meaning become compounded with or displaced by,unintended implications as the receiver reconstructs the meaning of the message.effective communications realize that the goal of communication is to share information and information sharing is typically a two way street.sucessful communication dependa on both sender and receiver understanding.

communications process does not occur in vaccum.According to Narula,the act of communication suggest a sender ,a receiver when there is active communication,the effort is for the interaction,interchange,dialogue and mutual understanding.For effective communication process,these are essential

A common communication environment

Cooperation between the sender and receiver

Selection of an appropriate channel

Correct encoding and decodin of the message

Receipt of the desired response and feedback.

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1.Discuss various meaning of communication and shed light on the significance of communication in human society?

The word communication may have different meanings for different people in different contexts.sometimes communication refers a process.Sometimes,by the term we mwan some human acts.And,communication is a kind of discipline of knowledge too.

As process communication is such a system where different entites are engaged in a specific manner.for example,human beings are engaged in expressing and knowing information through the use of words or other kinds of signs.Here,humans,sings,channels and other entites are associated in a process called communication.where as sharing a information is also called a communication.As communication has been considered as such process through which meanings and social realities are created/precieved/shared it is taken as the base of the human society.without communication, there would be no existence ofhuman society.It is no exaggeration to say that communication is at the heart of human exsistancve.In fact we live in communication.without communication there is no possibility of social interaction,political and economic activites.In other word we can say that,it is a capacity to communicate which made social cohesion and hence the growth of civilization possible.c

Communication is human act .Though we are not often awere of human beings are constantly envolved in the communication process.Whatever we do it has communicating meaning.We use communication to express our inner purpose,attitudes,feelings and to descrive events and object for the external world.Communication creats sharedness.When human communicates,there is sharing of feelings ,emotions ,knowledge ,ideas,thoughts e.t.c with others.

Various kind of definations of communications are

The dictionary meaning of communications is “The exchange of thoughts,message or information,as by speech,signals,writing or behavior.”

Communication is social interaction through message.

It is the simplest from communication is the transmission of a message from a source to receiver.

The tream communication has many different meanings and definations but the centeral idea is of a process of increased commonality or sharing between participants.

Communication us the exchangr of ideas,information

Communications is defined as the transmission or exchange of information or ideas or feelings by means of sounds,signs or symbols.

Communications can be defined as the exchange of information ,ideas and knowledge between sende and receiver through an accepted code of symbol.

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